Thursday, August 27, 2020

The Body Shop International Essay Example

The Body Shop International Essay Example The Body Shop International Paper The Body Shop International Paper The Body Shop International presents the instance of an organization whose plan of action quality at first depended on its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), however that a while later confronted issues and difficulties, because of fumble of inner assets, partners clashes, and the ignorance of outer changes. The model made points of interest yet in addition constrained development, as the association was not set up for extension because of the absence of corporate structure required for a worldwide technique. Anita Roddick has confidence in the intensity of organizations and in the utilization of accomplishment as a power of social change, thusly Body beginning crucial to make benefit with standards, that is, in effect particularly answerable for representatives, society, Third World turn of events and nature. This inventive, radical and brave methodology became Body Shops upper hand (Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility); and as per this system characterized a novel advertising approach: alluring and ecological items, directed costs and loosened up shop condition so as to pull in and instruct clients (humanistic, natural cognizant). CSR settlements to Body Shop were unmistakably refreshing through the 80s when it developed half yearly; media consideration and client mindfulness brought about lift deals, shop openings, increments in stock worth, and so forth. Display 1 shows Body Shops partners and the vital result or worth made by the companys CSR conduct by methods for the centrality, explicitness, voluntarism and perceivability of its activities. Uncommon accentuation and achievement were acquired in the Visibility measurement, as Body Shop was not generally ready to rehearse its social vision, yet consistently was truly adept at advancing it. Anita is an extraordinary PR (noisy and quotable) and during her administration consistently ensured the firm picked up acknowledgment from inner and outside partners. Different keys for Body Shops achievement were Anitas initiative, magnetism, impact and the executives style; extremely advantageous for an Entrepreneurship adventure. She made a corporate culture dependent on correspondence, casualness and disrupt the guidelines mindset that brought about workers unwaveringness, duty and efficiency. All things considered, toward the start of the 90s Body Shop appeared to have lost its enchantment development equation. The principle issues looked by the organization were its failure to adjust and organize partners interests, just as its absence of dexterity and adaptability to advance and adjust to outside changes. One of the primary driver was the companys low Proactivity. An underlying open door was sought after by Body Shop because of its pioneer accepts, vision, recounted and fortunate occasions, however subsequently the organization was always unable to design its conduct fully expecting rising patterns and dangers (rivalry, globalization, development) and accordingly influence its first mover advantage in the CSR field. Body Shops chief irreconcilable circumstance was with Franchises, one of its primary accomplices and partners. The organization received this model of extension which was at first proper because of its generally safe (self financing), yet flopped in improving and controlling the system. Home office was not equipped for actualizing a control framework over establishments, basic during a development stage, albeit a severe and tedious choice was made. A few establishments were getting despondent, not lined up with the companys standards and unmotivated with the business and the idea. Some communicated worry about Anitas moral and political blowups, however the main concern was they were not beneficial and felt they didnt got backing and consideration from base camp. This was particularly the situation of free establishments, which to date despite everything speak to 29% of the shops, who griped they were separated for organization possessed ones. Body Shop is subcontracting its principle resource (relationship with clients) to establishments, so they should adjust them. They contribute with significant beginning up speculations and eminences (5%), just as with their insight and mastery about clients and markets. Vertical coordination (repurchasing unmotivated establishments) is another option, however the fundamental issue won't be fathomed until they can recapture command over the system and exercise genuine authority over them, by methods for executing rules, norms, and chains of importance (Bureaucracy). Clashes additionally began with different partners, for example, clients, financial specialists, and even representatives (carelessness), fundamentally due to Anitas progressively political activities. Body Shops brand and picture began to fall apart as result of open discussions about the companys 100% regular items, best practices, hunger for exposure, tricky demeanor and populist battling. That is, the companys genuine CSR expectations were addressed and there was an inclination to trust Body Shop communicated social concern only for selling. Possibly, clients could be lost and deals influenced, just as investors premiums regarding esteem creation (profits, capital increases). Anita was over concentrating on social activism and was not interested in organizations primary concern: Profitability. A portion of the key issues not tended to accurately by the organization were their ignorance of industry changes and contenders response, just as their disappointment in setting up a universal extension. Premium contenders, for example, Aveda, Lush and Origins started offering regular items, practicing pressure over Body Shop, who was not effectively developing any longer and whose items were beginning to be seen as low end with premium cost. The companys choice to extend universally was a reasonable one because of economies of scale (it was depending to much on the UK) and scope and to situate itself as a worldwide player in the corrective business with the best CSR rehearses. Be that as it may, they neither performed itemized showcase explores nor arranged the associations structure for such an extension. The U. S. showcase was an alternate one, with a various buyer base less worried about natural issues however item and cost driven, less brand steadfast and in where there was an intense rivalry, particularly through commercial; a greater and less controllable market with hardly any basic qualities with the English one. The Body Shop has two options for global extension: full entrance in the U. S. advertise with past market division, offering customized items and administrations through advantageous channels (gain backing and catch shopping centers) or a methodology of light entrance in the U. S. joined with center in other possible remote endeavors, despite the fact that not with a similar size as the American one (Asia Pacific, Continental Europe, and so forth). For each situation, Body Shop must train seriously to nearby staff, keep their qualities, refine their promoting system locally (solid notice in U. S. arket for instance), fulfill nearby administrative needs and ceaselessly screen and control usage. So as to effectively travel to the following phase of its authoritative life cycle, the Collective Stage, Body Shop ought to have changed its Roddicks focused association, in were dynamic was just a matter of its pioneers. A casual association was appropriate while having not many shops; size increment and worldwide extension requests a proper association with characte rized control frameworks, exacting responsibility, expanded administration and reasonable data innovation for data stream. A territorial structure with decentralized dynamic is essential for increasing worldwide bit of leeway by methods for national responsiveness (Multinational Corporation) and future worldwide reconciliation (Global Corporation). Information move, central station arranging, formalization and worldwide groups coordination are key components. At long last, administration changes are vital so as to stay away from the association reliance on Anita and to bring reviving thoughts and industrys best practices. When an organization is open, it needs to work in its investors advantage, so center ought to be benefits over energy, and office issues ought to be maintained a strategic distance from, in spite of the fact that authors inheritance and best practices ought to be kept. Adrian Bellamy, an ex chief who entered the organization through a joint endeavor, is the real CEO of the Body Shop, after the Roddicks ventured down because of speculator pressures. All things considered Anita is an advisor, and Bellamy should utilize Anitas information and ability in promoting and item improvement issues for the organization; let her proceed with movement and develop! Body Shop ought to keep up its CSR advantage yet additionally pull together its endeavors in item improvement and retailing (establishments), considering attributes of individual markets (versatile versus worldwide). Cost decreases, new item dispatches and bundling, augmentation of fruitful extents, advancements, invigorating store designs, new channels of dissemination (Internet), I/T frameworks support (really executing SAP), are some proposed activities so as to re position the brand as one contribution valid items at moderate costs. Will Body Shop accomplish Sustainable Growth? Anitas inheritance (CSR, advancement), along with great business the executives could make the organization come back to the achievement way. In spite of the fact that overseeing partners connections isn't a simple and clear assignment, the organization has still a significant system of key accomplices (establishments) and a brand with worldwide reach, inside an area (individual consideration) with potential and in were there are still open doors for development.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Lg Brown Goods

Undertaking on LG Contents Mission3 Mission Statement3 Vision3 Core Values3 How the current methodologies are inside the mission, vision and center values3 Present Strategy3 Market Analysis3 Segmentation3 Targeting4 Positioning4 Needs4 PESTLE Analysis4 Political factor4 Economical factor4 Socio-social factors5 Technological factors5 Legal factors5 Environmental factors5 Industry/Competitive Analysis6 Industry in which LG Competes6 Industry execution for most recent 5 years and projections for next 3 years6Market portion of Top 5 players by segments7 Market portion of sorted out and sloppy for a year ago and projection for next three years8 Industry’s 5 serious forces9 Indirect Competitors of LG Electronics (Brown Goods) â€9 Top Direct Competitors of LG Electronics in INDIA â€9 Competitive points of interest of Samsung Electronics â€10 Competitive Advantages of Sony Electronics â€10 Competitive Advantage of Videocon â€10 SWOT Analysis of LG Electronics â€10 Pe rformance Review11Past execution of the item and components of the showcasing mix11 Objective of the company13 Mission Statement To turn into a top inventive hardware organization on the planet. It invests heavily in its organization and workers and accepts this is the thing that will make it into one of the most inventive organizations of the 21st century. Vision LG’s vision is to convey creative advanced items and administrations that make our customers’ lives better, simpler and more joyful through expanded usefulness and fun. Center ValuesGlobal, Tomorrow, Energy, Humanity and Technology are the columns that this organization is established on; with the capital letters L and G situated inside a hover to focus our beliefs to the exclusion of everything else, humankind. The image mark represents our purpose to set up an enduring relationship with, and to accomplish the most elevated fulfillment for our clients. How the current procedures are inside the mission, visio n and guiding principle By receiving the Blue Ocean Strategy LG will have the option to continue its administration position.BOS gives a methodical method of distinguishing and making high development openings. LG is looking not simply to keep up its initiative situation in India, yet to proceed to develop, and to change from a mass brand to an excellent one. Through the appropriation of this approach, LG plans to dispatch items or administrations which make or essentially increment its pieces of the pie and benefit by offering separated qualities taking into account clients. The transition to receive Blue Ocean Strategy is viewed as a driven drive to revive LG globally.The procedure targets planning so as to abuse openings, so far undiscovered; either inside the current fragments of LG or outside, where there is zero or insignificant rivalry. Present Strategy * Local and proficient assembling to diminish cost * Product localisation; LG came out with provincial language menus on its TV * Introduction of low evaluated items for the rustic market particularly in the TV fragment * LG has received the territorial dispersion model in India * Offering moderate items at a lower edge â€cutting on volume to ring in incomes * LG is embracing the Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) in India as a major aspect of its worldwide system * BOS gives a casing work for splitting ceaselessly from the opposition to accomplish high client worth and gainfulness at the same time * Blue Ocean Products will be items and administrations which make a differential incentive for the client, along these lines opening up immense, new markets to definitely improve benefit and piece of the overall industry * Blue Ocean Business Model is one that centers the endeavors of the organization on giving separated an incentive to clients. Market AnalysisSegmentation †Demographic Higher salary bunch Occupation †Geographic Tier 1 and Tier 2 urban areas †Psychographic Loyalty status †switche r steadfast on the grounds that result of various need are taken from various brand considering predominance Usage rate †high as far as use client life stage †relationships and other life stage are when earthy colored great and eletronics are purchased benefts †for customer who look for benefits inferred with tech occassion †purchased generally on merry season so furnished with different plans. †Behavioral LG search for Value and way of life which individuals accept they relate to. TargetingLG has focused on its market based on the item that they are offering to the purchaser. upper-lower and higher portions individuals more worry to medical advantages, way of life and quality items LCD and Plasma TV for premium section attempting to move to mid class and mass market of item specific specialization Positioning Differentiate item on innovation which bid to buyer on premise of medical advantages like wellbeing wave framework for broiler, brilliant eye for TV i ts slogan depicts to make individuals life better helpful and more beneficial they attempt to position as youthful lively and premium brand NeedsNeeds met by the LG earthy colored n hardware item †convenience, higher proficiency PESTLE Analysis Political factor Taxation approaches, outside exchange guidelines, exchange strategies are the significant political elements. LG must follow the compliances given by the administration like the Environmental Protection Agency. Deals volume gets adversely influenced because of any adjustment in the approaches or outside exchange guidelines. It will make shopper pay more for items. There is a likelihood that the adjustment in government can have an impact from the help of LG’s Research and Development. These political elements are:High import obligation Export advancement plan of Indian government like EPCG(Export Promotion Capital Good Scheme), EOU(Export Oriented Units) status Plants in Tax motivating force regions like Pune, Gre ater Noida. Affordable factor Price wars is the greatest monetary factor for LG. LG has utilized serious systems like restriction and adjusting it to various markets. Making it simpler to catch consumer’s eye with items that are simpler for their regular living. In India, LG opened assembling offices that started with the R&D taking a gander at what contenders have just brought to the arket and made their item novel and equipped towards the buyers needs. Things that may influence deals volume from a financial point of view is an unexpected change in consumer’s pay. So LG would need to glance in to how they can make items increasingly reasonable for shoppers in downturn. In India GDP is rising. Per Capita Income is expanding, so spending intensity of purchaser is expanding. Socio-social elements LG went into the market in India with quite a few apparatuses. They adjusted to the market and quickly started to be the trend-setters of that market.They have offered back to the general public by furnishing them with work openings by building fabricating plants. They are fabricating eco-accommodating items and expanding the way of life of the individuals. Inside the social factor, LG has had the option to accomplish a higher deals volume in India. Mechanical components LG has consistently been a pioneer in development from the 1980s so innovation is the significant factor for them. LG is extending in 3G Network innovation. In India, Reliance joining with LG has 3G plans made for advanced mobile phones. LG acquainted its LG Optimus 3D with the market in India.Improvement in innovation made the item less expensive and nature of item has been expanded. Legitimate elements Legal elements like work law and customer assurance law can likewise influence the beginning up of an organization. Work laws, similar to what number of individuals a business utilizes the quantity of representatives in every area, the base number of workers indicated in the business l aw and so on. Customer assurance law shields shoppers from false or deceptive strategic approaches, deluding ads, and blemished items. In this way, these are a portion of the laws that organizations must stand before beginning a venture.Environmental factors LG must follow the compliances given by the administration bodies like the Environmental Protection Agency which additionally screens the usage. The organization was punished for neglecting to meet its duty to make items free of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and brominated fire retardants (BFRs) before the finish of 2010. The entirety of LG's cell phones are presently liberated from PVC and BFRs while different items, for example, TVs and journals contain PVC/BFR free parts; LG intends to eliminate these substances from TVs screens and PCs by 2012 and family unit apparatuses by 2014.In the Guide the organization scored severely on the Energy models, being condemned for setting a feeble objective for the decrease of ozone harm ing substance outflows and not making sustainable power source some portion of its low carbon procedure. LG scored most focuses in the Sustainable Operations class with the organization giving reclaim to out of date telephones in 52 nations and being tending to the issue of contention minerals. LG is presently following a green item methodology. The target of LG Electronics’ green item methodology is to limit the ecological effect in general worth chain while enhancing lives.The procedure comprises of three segments; vitality, human and assets. The methodology depends on a model that thinks about high vitality proficiency, a decrease in crude material utilization, and human government assistance. Industry/Competitive Analysis Industry in which LG Competes LG Competes in Consumer Durables industry. Theâ consumer durables industryâ emerged in the twentieth century and has now become a worldwide industry worth billions of dollars. * LG spends significant time in the assembling of shopper durables The extent of our report covers LG’s earthy colored Goods which include: * Television * Audio-Video Systems Computers * Electronic Accessories Industry execution for most recent 5 years and projections for next 3 years * We accept that the Indian customer durables industry will post solid twofold digit development of ~15% throughout the following 3 years. * We accept th

Friday, August 21, 2020

Order Papers - The Necessity Of Ordering Proper Papers

Order Papers - The Necessity Of Ordering Proper PapersOrder papers are used to organize and keep track of the documents, items and things that are delivered. They are also used in delivering the goods which have been ordered online. The documents that are used for this are electronic forms. The Internet has made it possible for people to do all kinds of transactions that had once been impossible.Online shopping has also made it possible for individuals to get all sorts of products and things without having to go out of their homes. It is so convenient because one can access all sorts of information on the internet with the click of a button. Orders which are to be delivered from online stores need to be approved by the buyer. In order to get the approval, a customer will have to provide the details of his transaction. Some companies will make sure that they have proof of the payment that has been done.It is important for any online store to have proof of the payment that has been mad e. Otherwise, if the transaction is not approved then the goods could get lost and you could end up paying more than what was supposed to be paid. You can use the order paper, which can be produced from a computer to make sure that your transaction has been approved.These order papers help the company to provide a better service to the people who are ordering from them. They are just used as proof of the payment that has been made. They also prove that the payment has been made. If you don't have these types of documents then you can rely on the fact that the delivery of your goods was done.Paper products are available in different shapes and sizes. Paper can be utilized in order to document transactions that take place over the internet. It is also used to create postcards or leaflets that can be used for marketing purposes.There are many companies that will provide you with all the documents that you need when you are making online orders. Most of them are web based and run their own website. They have plenty of different products that can be ordered over the internet. It is important for people to ensure that they are using the best quality paper for this.Order papers are available in different colors and sizes. However, people should always keep in mind that they are supposed to be original and genuine. They should not be duplicated or forged.Sometimes you will be asked to make a fax in order to get a copy of the paper. In this case the company will send the fax. The documents will then be faxed back to you and then once you have the documents in your hands then you can get your copy of the order papers.

Monday, May 25, 2020

United States And Foreign Policy - 2415 Words

United States (US) interference of foreign policy is a complex and much debated issue in the United States. The major topics to be evaluated include the benefits and costs in the areas of national security, humanitarian causes, trade, alliance, and economic impacts. Additional concerns involve the loss of human life and the animosity generated toward the US when the country decides to provide aid to another. US interference can have positive and negative effects if acted upon by interceding in foreign affairs. The United States should not be allowed to intercede in foreign affairs unless the US is trying to promote and preserve peace. US interference consists of preserving national security, promoting world peace and a secure global environment, maintaining a balance of power among nations, working with allies to solve international problems, promoting democratic values and human rights, and furthering cooperative foreign trade and global involvement in international trade organiz ations (ushistory, 2013). One way the United States can secure the national security is by protecting the borders from terrorists, instead of spending money for foreign wars. The US should invest money to secure the border. Securing the border would require fewer troops and would utilize unmanned surveillance technology called the Predator B drone, which costs $3,234 per hour to operate (Isacson, 2014). If the US would secure the borders, would provide a boost to the economy, employment wouldShow MoreRelatedForeign Policy, Reformed, And The United States1437 Words   |  6 PagesStefan Danilov Pol S 321 B Professor Robin Datta Response Paper 1, Prompt 1 October 18, 2015 Foreign Policy, Reformed Looking back at the history of the United States, we find ourselves in the midst of a revelation. The country of grandiose influence and excessive wealth, that we have come to know during our lifetimes, actually had quite humble beginnings. At a time when most of us are used to having most countries come to the US to inquire for help and assistance, we may not be all too aware thatRead MoreThe United States Foreign Policy1667 Words   |  7 PagesAs Kelly Anderson’s Foreign Policy Analyst, the following memo will address three areas of the United States’ foreign policy. The U.S. has gone through may transition when it comes to its foreign policy. The United States has been an isolationist, neutralist, and internationalist country from the year it was founded to now. The executive branch and the president apply their power to influence and change the nation’s foreign policy. There are specific departments within the Executive Office of theRead MoreThe United Sta tes Foreign Policy Essay1470 Words   |  6 PagesThe United States foreign policy is an interaction between the United States and foreign nations. Foreign policy sets standards on how different organizations, corporations, and individual citizens should interact with one another. Some Americans believe the United States should remain withdrawn from the affairs of foreign countries, but other Americans believe the United States should involve itself in the affairs of foreign countries. In 1796, George Washington included these words in his farewellRead MoreForeign Policy Of The United States1042 Words   |  5 Pages The foreign policy of the United States of America is the process in which it cooperates with foreign nations and sets guidelines of communication for the rest of the world. The foreign policy of the United States is the strategy by which the United States communicates with foreign countries. The U.S. has a powerful influence in this world. The global reach of the United States is backed by a $14.3 trillion dollar economy, roughly a quarter of worldwide GDP, and a protection spending plan of $711Read MoreThe United States And Foreign Policies870 Words   |  4 PagesDurning 1913 and 1916 Woodrow Wilsons domestic and foreign policies weren t both equally successful but both were successful. AlthoughWilson had primarily been elected to reform national politics and initiate new progressive policies in Washington, he spent the majority of his time as President dealing with foreign policy rather than domestic. Wilson s predecessors, including McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, and Taft, had v iewed the United States as an emerging power that needed to extend its influenceRead MoreThe United States And Foreign Policy Essay982 Words   |  4 Pagesthe rest of the world, and its foreign policy reflected these ideas and beliefs. The United States was on its way to becoming a world power and advancing its own interest in the world, especially in the North and South America. Isolationism caused the United States to avoid being involved in other countries politics and for the U.S. to remain neutral in foreign policy Americans in the 19th century were more interested in domestic events than the affairs of foreign countries. Economic growth andRead MoreThe United States And Foreign Policy Essay4400 Words   |  18 PagesIn contemporary, international society the United States is at the forefront of global affairs. Moreover, scholars have argued that after the First World War, American hegemony led a path for a liberalized world, where cooperation and harmonious institutions unit the world. However, the United States historically has never been this type of hegemonic leader. Rather from their conception as a nation they had a foreign policy which isolated them from foreign affairs of the world, from President WashingtonRead MoreThe United States And Foreign Policy881 Words   |  4 Pagesthe rest of the world, and its foreign policy reflected these ideas and beliefs. The United States was on its way to becoming a world power and advancing its own interest in the world, especially in the North an d South America. Isolationism caused the United States to avoid being involved in other countries politics and for the U.S. to remain neutral in foreign policy Americans in the 19th century were more interested in domestic events than the affairs of foreign countries. Economic growth andRead MoreThe United States And Foreign Policy1633 Words   |  7 PagesThe United States has always had an erratic view towards foreign policy. At its conception, it leaned isolationist for about a century leading up to the First World War before opening up to the global stage. In the interwar period, the United States retreated somewhat back into isolation but continued to support Europe and Latin America. After World War 2, America was left to assume the role as the global hegemonic power, both willingly and unwillingly. Unique circumstances such as the destructionRead MoreThe United States Foreign Policy975 Words   |  4 PagesThe United States Foreign policy in the Middle East Since the United States became the world’s sole superpower, the Middle East has been seen as the most troublesome region in the world by US politicians. This view emanates from all the conflicts going in the Middle East that have the potential to threaten numerous strategic interests for the united Stated such as oil, terrorist, and Israel. Yet Middle East has never seen as problematic as it is now due to the excessive flux of problems the Middle

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Life of Astronomer Claudius Ptolemy

The science of astronomy is one of humanitys oldest sciences. No one knows quite when the first people looked up and began to study the sky, but we do know that very early people began noting the sky thousands of years in the past. Written astronomical records were recorded in ancient times, often on tablets or walls or in artwork. That was when observers began charting what they saw in the sky. They didnt always understand what they observed, but realized that the skys objects move in periodic and predictable ways. Claudius Ptolemy with an armillary sphere he used to predict solstice dates and other celestial sights. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons. Claudius Ptolemy (often called Claudius Ptolemaeus, Ptolomaeus, Klaudios Ptolemaios, and simply Ptolemeus) was one of the earliest of these observers. He systematically charted the sky to help predict and explain the motions of the planets and stars. He was a scientist and philosopher who lived in Alexandria, Egypt nearly 2,000 years ago. Not only was he an astronomer, but he also studied geography and used what he learned to make detailed maps of the known world. We know very little of Ptolemys early life, including his birth and death dates. Historians have more information about his observations since they became the basis for later charts and theories. The first of his observations that can be dated exactly occurred on March 12, 127. His last recorded one was February 2, 141. Some experts think his life spanned the years 87 – 150. However long he lived, Ptolemy did much to advance science and appears to have been a very accomplished observer of the stars and planets.   We get a few clues about his background from his name: Claudius Ptolemy. Its a mixture of the Greek Egyptian Ptolemy and the Roman Claudius. Together, they indicate that his family was probably Greek and they had settled in Egypt (which was under Roman rule) for some time before his birth. Very little else is known about his origins.   Ptolemy, the Scientist Ptolemys work was quite advanced, considering that he didnt have the types of tools that astronomers rely on today. He lived in a time of naked eye observations; no telescopes existed to make his life easier. Among other topics. Ptolemy  wrote about the  Greek geocentric view  of the universe (which put Earth at the center of everything). That view seemed to quite nicely put humans at the center of things, as well, a notion that was hard to shake until Galileos time. Ptolemy also calculated the apparent motions of the known planets. He did this by synthesizing and extending the work of Hipparchus of Rhodes, an astronomer who came up with a system of epicycles and eccentric circles to explain why Earth was the center of the solar system. Epicycles are small circles whose centers move around the circumferences of larger ones.  He used at least 80 of these tiny circular orbits  to explain the motions of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets known in his time. Ptolemy expanded this concept and made many fine calculations to fine-tune it.   This drawing by astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini was influenced by the epicycles that Ptolemy refined by his mathematics and observations of the sky. public domain This system came to be called the Ptolemaic System. It was the linchpin of the theories about objects motions in the sky for nearly a millennium and a half. It predicted the positions of the planets accurately enough for naked-eye observations, but it turned out to be wrong and too complicated. As with most other scientific ideas, simpler is better, and coming up with loopy circles wasnt a good answer to why planets orbit the way they do.   Ptolemy the Writer Ptolemy was also a prolific writer in the subjects and disciplined he studied. For astronomy, he described his system in his books that make up the  Almagest (also known as Mathematical Syntaxis). It was a 13-volume mathematical explanation of astronomy  containing information about the numerical and geometrical concepts behind the motions of the Moon and known planets. He also included a star catalog that contained 48 constellations (star patterns) he could observe, all with the same names that are still in use today. As a further example of some of his scholarship, he made regular observations of the sky at the time of the solstices and equinoxes, which allowed him to figure out the lengths of the seasons. From this information, he then went on to try and describe the motion of the Sun around our planet. Of course, he was wrong because the Sun does not orbit Earth. But, without more knowledge of the solar system, it would have been very difficult for him to know that. However, his systematic approach to charting and measuring sky events and objects was among the first scientific attempts to explain what happens in the sky. The Ptolemaic System was the accepted wisdom about the motions of the solar system bodies and the importance of Earth in that system for centuries. In 1543, the Polish scholar Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric view which put the Sun at the center of the solar system. The heliocentric calculations he came up with for the movement of planets were further improved by Johannes Keplers laws of motion. Interestingly, some people doubt that Ptolemy truly believed his own system, rather he merely used it as a method of calculating positions. A page of Ptolemys Almagest translated and reproduced by Edward Ball Knobel. public domain   Ptolemy was also very important in the history of geography and cartography. He was well aware that Earth is a sphere and was the first cartographer to project the spherical shape of the planet onto a flat plane. His work, Geography  remained the principal work on the subject until the time of Columbus. It contained amazingly accurate information for the time and given the difficulties of mapping that all cartographers raced. But it did have some problems, including an overestimated size and extent of the Asian landmass. Some scholars think that the maps Ptolemy created may have been a deciding factor in Columbuss decision to sail west for the Indies and ultimately discover the continents of the western hemisphere. Fast Facts about Ptolemy Not much is known about Ptolemys early life. He was a Greek citizen living in Alexandria, Egypt.Ptolemy was a cartographer and geography, and also worked in mathematics.Ptolemy was also an avid skygazer. Sources Claudius Ptolemy,â€Å"Claudius Ptolemy.†Ã‚  Ptolemy (about 85-about 165),â€Å"Notable People.†Ã‚  Who Was Claudius Ptolemy, Edited and updated by Carolyn Collins Petersen

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Guided Evolution and Intelligent Design A Guide to the...

In Science and Religion: Are They Compatible?, Alvin Plantinga argues that proponents of naturalism, like Richard Dawkins and Daniel Dennett, tell us that, according to the theory of evolution, neither God nor any other agent has designed or created the living world, and that evolution, therefore, clearly contradicts the central tenant of theistic religion (which Dennett labels â€Å"entirely gratuitous fantasy† ). If what these experts say is true and we must understand evolution only in the context of naturalistic, unguided evolution, â€Å"then evolutionary theory is deeply incompatible with theistic religion, whether Christian†¦or Jewish.† However, Plantinga stresses that evolution does not need to be interpreted in this way, and that, because of this, religion does not have to be held in such opposition to science at all. Christian and Jewish doctrines require only that â€Å"God intended to create creatures of a certain kind†¦planned that there be crea tures of that kind†¦and acted in such a way as to accomplish this intention,† and such a claim is clearly consistent with evolutionary theory in that naturalism is not a necessary requirement of the theory itself. In this paper I will explore the positions of the Jewish faith with respect to the question of evolutionary theory, and, more explicitly, will draw comparisons between Judaism and Christianity to investigate whether popular religion is as staunchly opposed to evolutionary theory as Dawkins and Dennett propose. If the work ofShow MoreRelatedOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pages. Organization Theory Challenges and Perspectives John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson . This book is, to my knowledge, the most comprehensive and reliable guide to organisational theory currently available. What is needed is a text that will give a good idea of the breadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of workRead MoreA Case Study of International Brand Management: Comparison of Lexus Brand Management in Brazil, United States and Japan.39374 Words   |  158 Pages ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·17 Create advantage  ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã ‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·17 I.1.5. I.1.6. Brand structure ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ · 17 A different perspective to brand equity. The Customer-based brand equity model  ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ · 18 Brand knowledge ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·  ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ · 19 Brand awareness  ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. 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Another way of saying this is that your audience should see that the conclusion follows from the reasons given to support it. ────CONCEPT CHECK──── Which of the following

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Cottle-Taylor case analysis free essay sample

Cottle – Taloy : expanding the oral group in India Background Cottle Taylor was founded as a start hyup company in 1815. By 2009 they boast a product selection of over 200 oral care, personal, care, and home care products. In 2009 roughly 50% of the company revenue ($5.7 Billion) came from emerging markets. In 2009 Sales have grown 80% annually, net income 12% and earnings per share 14%. India Operations Cottle Taylor conducts its India operations through a subsidiary of the company called Cotte India. The India operations are solely focused on oral care, which includes toothpaste, tooth powder and dental floss. Throughout India they have a distribution network that sells in more than 450,000 retail outlets. India Demographics India is the world’s largest democracy with an area of 1.2 million square miles. In 2009 the population was 1.16 billion people with a median age of 25 and an annual growth rate of 1.4%. Population control campaigns have successfully slowed down the growth rate 17% in the following years. There are 28 states and 19 territories with citizens who speak primarily Hindi as well as English as a second language. In 2009 India’s GDP was 146 times greater than in 1990 but there is a clustered distribution of wealth with 4 states accounting for 30% of the total GDP. 37% of the population is impoverished and over 80% lived on less then $2 per day. Indian Oral Care Traditionally Indians have had very limited exposure to proper oral care. A typical Indian will chew twigs from the Neem tree which they call â€Å"Natures drugstore† In 2004 the Indian dental association launched campaigns to educate Indians about oral health care issues. Oral care grew 10% from 2008 to 2009. Quality of Life/Shopping Habits Basic health care is very limited with high illiteracy rates. A recent increase in mobile technology in India has revolutionized the country and has connected millions of people to the globe. Indians are extremely price sensitive due to the limited financial resources in the country. In semi-urban areas, smaller sized products at affordable prices are most favorable while urban shoppers prefer shopping at convenience stores, departments, supermarkets, and specialty retailers where the price is higher. Case Analysis Lang and Patel both have different ideas of what strategy should be implemented in India. The target customer is a major difference where Patel wants to focus on the low-end brushes for first time users, when Lang thinks it is better to concentrate on mid-range brushes and battery operated products for customers with higher income. The three primary messages that the company uses to market their products are: 1) Persuading consumers to brush for the first time 2) Increasing the incidence of brushing 3) Persuading consumers to upgrade to midrange or premium products. Patel, who wants to focus on reaching consumers buying the low-end products, essentially needs to imbue most of the advertising budget into the first message, which persuades consumers to brush for the first time. This is because 50% of Indians are not concerned with preventing or curing dental problems, especially in rural areas, if she aims to significantly improve sales she needs to educate these customers on the importance of oral hygiene. By educating this group, Cottle can capture this demographic and make a great profit. It is essential to start with this huge demographic of Indians who do not use tooth brushes to turn them into lifelong customers who will later on purchase more advanced dental products to compliment brushing Recommendations Uneven distribution of messages Urban, semi-urban: Message 1: 10% Message 2: 40% Message 3: 50% Rural: Message 1: 60% Message 2: 35% Message 3: 5% Above the line marketing strategy: promotional activities carried out through mass media, TV, radio, out of home, magazines, cinema and newspaper for above the line promotional activities. Cottle’s ATL strategy: Advertise through billboards on the streets Advertise aggressively on mid-range toothbrush Link it to CSR activity to educate society on brushing twice and market the product. Below the line marketing strategy: Non-media communication or advertising and has become increasingly important in the communications mix of many companies. It is efficient and cost-effective for targeting a limited and specific group. Cottle’s BTL strategy: Updating â€Å"Anganwadi† workers in villages about the oral hygiene and providing the free samples to people who come oral health problems. Free health check – ups in towns schools and colleges and provide them with samples. More focus on message 1 and 3 ; message 2 would be implicit. Message 1: target young people and their parents. School plays â€Å"the demand for the golden brush†. Playing the kinds, the parents, and the doctor. In the end of the play kids would get a voucher saying â€Å"10% discount on a kids toothbrush or a familiar toothpaste or an electrical brush Promote through radios: ads like â€Å"I have a gum problem but since I started to brush every day I don’t have a problem anymore† Message 2: brush more often: distributors and dentists would talk about it: Promote through flyers radio and TV Message 3: Upgrade the brush: focus on TV ads and dentists: Ads with â€Å"son brushing for the first time and father brushing with electric brush. In the end with the dentist recommending it†. Promote through radios.